The most efficient ventilation system would only operate on demand, when ventilation was "needed". Running the ventilation system all the time at a low flow rate, a rate sufficient to match the ASHRAE recommended 0.35 ACH is a crude control approach to an optimum system. Conditions in a house are not constant. On average, a constant flow rate ventilation system will work reasonably well and certainly is simple, but there are more energy efficient approaches, and users tend to shut down systems that run constantly.
The peak electrical demand of office building VAV systems will be reduced by about 1.2 Kw/1000 Ft2 by employing an Integrated Systems Demand Control Technology (ISDCT) sequence to reduce peak intake flow by about 56%.Supply, return, and exhaust fan energy decreases with reduced airflows and pressures; and chiller system energy is saved by reduced cooling coil loads.The ISDCT sequence continuously computes zone contaminant concentrations allowing compliance with reference standards.
This paper shows that well proved state-of-the-art technology can be utilized to keep annual average energy consumption in office buildings below 130 kWh/m2, which is well below today's average, without compromising any major functional or architectural concepts of modern design. The Norwegian building regulations, which were revised in 1997, demand calculation of energy consumption for new buildings. However, the minimum requirements to energy consumption can even be satisfied with a modest degree of insulation or high internal loads.
The air quality in a subway-train was studied to suggest optimal design criteria and operationconditions based on the ventilation demand by passengers. The C02 emitted from thepassengers was the tracer for this study. The C02 bioeffluent from a human body was firstlyquantified and used for the data analysis. Then the C02 concentration was monitored in asubway-train being operated.
In this paper a new strategy for controlling ventilation systems is described. The strategy provides fresh air at a flow rate proportional to an estimate of the rate at which occupants generate carbon dioxide. Thus, the ventilation rate is nearly proportional to the occupant density even under transient conditions. Properties of the new strategy are described, and the performance is compared to a concentration regulating strategy in a simulation. The new strategy is shown to respond faster to a change in the occupant density and to keep the concentration at or below a threshold.
A passive tracer gas technique has been used in an experimental study of the distribution of contaminants in a room with displacement ventilation. Humans are simulated by heated metallic bodies and the tracer concentration in the breathing zone (exposure) is shown to be greatly influenced by both the position of the tracer source and the air convection current around the bodies. It is shown that pollutants emitted close to a body are completely and directly transported to the upper mixed zone and not mixed into the lower zone.
A demand controlled air ductwork should be so dimensioned that the flow controllers have good flow and acoustical operation conditions. From the air flows in a room and its highest permissible sound level, the highest differential pressures allowable to the air flow controllers (duct air flow controllers and terminal devices) are selected.