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Ambient air filter efficiency in airtight, highly energy efficient dwellings – A simulation study to evaluate benefits and associated energy costs

Highly energy efficient buildings such as ones built to the Passive House standard, require a very airtight building envelope and the installation of a mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR). MVHR systems incorporate ambient air filters, which reduce the introduction of particulate matter (PM) from outdoor sources into the dwelling. However, indoor PM sources, e.g. cooking, can also contribute substantially to occupants’ exposure and need to be accounted for when designing ventilation or deriving recommendations for filter classes. 

Estimated distributions of PM2.5 concentrations in the kitchens of the English housing stock for infiltration and mechanical ventilation scenarios

Exposures to elevated concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) have been linked to multiple negative health effects. Investigations into PM2.5 exposures primarily focus on external concentrations, which are easier to monitor. However, there is a growing interest in indoor exposures, as people spend up to 70% of their time at home, concentrations in dwellings may have a greater influence on personal exposures.

An intervention study of PM2.5 concentrations measured in domestic kitchens

Exposures to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) are linked to multiple acute and chronic health effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. As people spend up to 70% in their own homes, exposures to pollutants indoors could have a greater impact on health than exposure outdoors. Cooking is a primary emission source of PM2.5 in dwellings, and is of interest as it is an activity conducted several times a day in most households.

Ventilation improvement for make-up air supply system cooking-generated indoor particles

Cooking activities generate massive fine particulate matter (number concentration). Effective ventilation system can improve the indoor air quality impacts of pollutants from residential cooking. Make-up air supply system can improve the range hood and Indoor air quality. In this study, we measured a capture efficiency of range hood with make-up air supply and indoor particles during cooking activates. For household’s comfort, make-up air supply was installed the line diffuser type. Case 1 PN concentrations increased to around 60,000#/cm3.

Indoor particle concentration related to occupant behavior of Korean residential buildings

In recent years, PM, which is one of the most important indoor air pollutants, has attracted a great deal of attention. PM is mainly generated by occupant activities. In particular, cooking and smoking are occupant activities that have the greatest effect on the indoor PM concentrations. The objective of this study is to analyse indoior PM concentration and occupant behavior of Korean residential buildings. PM concentration increased rapidly in a short time during the cooking process.

New release! AIVC Contributed Report 18

We are pleased to announce the release of AIVC Contributed Report 18: Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in New California Homes with Gas Appliances and Mechanical Ventilation!

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CR18: Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in New California Homes with Gas Appliances and Mechanical Ventilation

Substantial energy is used to condition the air that enters California homes through leaks in the building envelope and ductwork - typically about a third of all heating and cooling. Reducing this through air sealing is essential to California achieving zero energy homes. However, this outdoor air also dilutes pollutants emitted inside homes and contributes to a healthy indoor environment and acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). To address this IAQ issue, California’s Title 24 Building Standards have required mechanical ventilation in new homes since 2008.

Evaluating the Performance of Island Kitchen Range Hoods

A key aspect of achieving acceptable indoor air quality is source control. Cooking has been recognized as a significant source of pollutants for health impacts (e.g., PM2.5 and NO2) as well as moisture and odour. A common method of controlling this pollutant source is by using a range (or cooker) hood that vents to outside. However, field and laboratory experiments have shown highly variable performance for these devices. We use the capture efficiency metric (the fraction of the pollutants that are exhausted to outside at steady state) to characterize the range hood performance.

CONCENTRATION COMPARISON OF THE INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IDENTIFIED FROM THE RESTAURANTS WITH THE DIFFERENT COOKING AND VENTILATION METHODS

This study compared the concentrations of indoor air pollutants identified from the 5 restaurantsincluding a category A (two Korean barbecue houses) during a lunch time period and a category B(one Japanese, one Chinese, and one Italian restaurants) during a dinner time period.

FTIR spectroscopy measurements and CFD simulations of the pollutants arising from unflued combustion in a room.

Simulates a kitchen for a study of indoor air quality. An extractive FTIR technique was used to measure combustion products from unflued combustion from a gas cooker in a ventilated room. On a comparison of the results with those from conventional instruments, the FTIR technique showed good agreement. The study incorporated the obscuring of the spectrum due to the effects of H2O and carbon dioxide and detection limits. The conditions in the room were investigated using CFD.