Are low-cost sensors good enough for IAQ controls?

Over the past few years there have been advances in sensing of some pollutants, primarily particles, that might lead to ventilation controls based on direct sensing of pollutants – particularly those relating to health. In this study we evaluated low-cost (about $200 US) IAQ monitors that measured PM2.5 - the most important health-related pollutant in indoor air. Controlled laboratory tests were carried out with known sources of particles (cooking, cleaning, candles, cigarettes) and by comparing the IAQ monitors response to research-grade and reference measurement methods.

Rethinking Occupancy-Based Ventilation Controls

Traditionally, occupancy-based ventilation controls have only ventilated when occupants are present – usually based on measurements of CO2 and/or humidity.  These indictors may be fine for pollutants released directly by occupants, such as bioeffluents, or by their activities, such as cooking and cleaning. However, they do not account for pollutants not associated with occupancy, such as formaldehyde from building materials and furnishings.

What is smart ventilation? Presentation of the AIVC definition

In 2017, the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) identified smart ventilation for buildings as a new and important topic to be addressed. One of the tasks was to agree on a definition of smart ventilation, which was published in March 2018. The purpose of this presentation is to explain and illustrate the smart ventilation definition by AIVC.

Advances in European residential ventilation systems in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

Energy performance of buildings has been continuously and systematically improved in Europe with next step of transition to nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB) in 2019-2021. Well insulated and airtight NZEB provide challenges or opportunities – depending on point of view – for ventilation systems. Heat recovery ventilation may be expected to be major ventilation solution because in Continental and Nordic climates, it is simply impossible to build nearly zero energy buildings without heat recovery.

Development of a Seasonal Smart Ventilation Controller to Reduce Indoor Humidity in Hot-Humid Climate Homes

Controlling indoor humidity is important in homes, because high indoor humidity is associated with occupant health and building durability issues. Ventilation is often used to avoid peaks of moisture in homes, such as in kitchens and bathrooms. However, in hot-humid climates, outdoor air can have higher humidity than indoors, and continuous whole house ventilation can lead to increases in indoor humidity levels.

The building controls virtual test bed – a simulation environment for developing and testing control algorithms, strategies and systems

The paper describes the design of a Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB), a simulation environment for the development of control algorithms and strategies for the major energy systems in buildings, HVAC, lighting, active facades and on-site generation. The BCVTB is based on the whole building energy simulation program EnergyPlus and includes both the pure simulation and the hardware-in-the-loop methods of implementing the controls.

Simulation of energy management systems in EnergyPlus

An energy management system (EMS) is a dedicated computer that can be programmed to control all of a building’s energy-related systems, including heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, interior lighting, exterior lighting, on-site power generation, and mechanized systems for shading devices, window actuators, and double facade elements. Recently a new module for simulating an EMS was added to the EnergyPlus whole-building energy simulation program.

Incorporating simulation into building systems control logic

We present a prototypically implemented and empirically tested daylight-responsive lighting systems control in buildings that makes use of realtime sensing and lighting simulation. This system can control the position of window blinds and the status  of the luminaires. It operates as follows: (1) At regular time intervals, the system considers a set of candidate control states for the subsequent time step; (2) These alternatives are then virtually enacted via lighting simulation.

Challenges in harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the European Union

Possibilities for harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the EuropeanUnion are being discussed in the Working Party on Natural Radiation Sources established by theArticle 31 Group of Experts (Euratom Treaty). The Working Party is preparing a document to aid theArticle 31 Expert Group and the European Commission in considering possible recommendations andtechnical guidance to the Member States for the implementation of the new Basic Safety StandardsDirective concerning the radioactivity of building materials.

Thermal comfort: use of controls in naturally ventilated buildings.

A field study of the thermal comfort of workers in natural ventilated office buildings in Oxford and Aberdeen, UK, was carried out which included information about use of building controls. The data were analysed to explore that what effect the outdoor temperature has on the indoor temperature and how this is affected by occupants' use of environmental controls during the peak summer (June-August). The proportion of subjects using a control was related to indoor and outdoor temperatures to demonstrate the size of the effect.