The users' influence on the air infiltration.

This paper reports on measurements of air change rate in dwellings during occupancy. The occupants were shown to exert a considerable influence on the total air change. The air change rate for occupied dwellings is, on average, 3-4 times greater than the air change rate in sealed dwellings (with air escape valves, doors, windows, and ventilation system closed). The measurements also reveal a tendency for higher air change rates in mechanically ventilated dwellings than in naturally ventilated dwellings.

A quantitative estimate of the accuracy of tracer gas methods for the determination of the ventilation flow rate in buildings.

This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the error of the decay and constant concentration method. A number of tests were carried out in an indoor test house located in the laboratory hall at the National Swedish Institute for Building Research. The relevant meaning of the concept of air-exchange rate is discussed and an appropriate terminology is suggested. The theoretical background, based on a multi-cell model, of the two tracer gas methods is given.

Final report on the Alberta home heating research facility: results of the 1981-82 heating season and part of the 1982-83 heating season to January 1983.

This study used a constant concentration tracer gas measurement system to measure the air infiltration rate of three modules simulating residential buildings in Canada. The results obtained were compared with computer predictions.

Documenting air movements and infiltration in multicell buildings using various tracer-gas techniques.

Tracer gas techniques for measuring airflows in buildings fall into three categories - dilution, constant injection, and constant concentration. 

Continuous air infiltration measurements in the LESO.

The total air infiltration rates can be determined by the tracer gas decay method, but to measure the influence of inhabitants or convective exchanges between rooms, the constant concentration method is more suitable. In order tomeasure these effects, the Compact Equipment for Survey of Air Renewal (CESAR), developed at the LESO, was used to perform an air exchange analysis on data recorded at regular intervals in up to 10 locations simultaneously. Three tracer gas methods were implemented: decay, constant concentration and continuous flow.

Continuous air renewal measurements in an occupied solar office building.

A Compact Equipment for Air Renewal Survey (CESAR) has been developed by the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. The device has been designed for simultaneous analysis of up to 10 different inhabited rooms over extended periods of time (days or weeks). The constant concentration tracer gastechnique was used for the first survey done in the South rooms of the LESO building. Mean outdoor to room flow rates of between 1 and 40 m3/h were found.The mean building to room air flow was found to be 5 m3/h for rooms with only one communicating door with the rest of the building.

The reduction of air infiltration in an industrial laboratory.

As part of a programme to develop measurement methods for determining the ventilation rates of large buildings, we performed two series of tests in a single-celled laboratory with a volume of 600m3. The first series utilised constant concentration, constant emission and rate of decay tracer gas techniques to determine the characteristics of the infiltration pattern in varying winds and external temperatures. We used both discrete and continuous injection and sampling methods.

Air change rate measurements in the Roulet villa at Apples. Mesure du taux de renouvellement d'air dans la villa Roulet a Apples.

The air change rate and the volume of heated air of the villa were measured by the constant concentration tracer gas method during a period of 11 days. The total volume of the villa is 1000 m3 and the heated volume 530 m3. It is built on six half-levels. The occupants continued their normal lifestyle during themeasurements. The Compact Equipment for Survey of Air Renewal (CESAR) was used with nitrous oxide as tracer gas at a concentration of 100 ppm. The mean global air change rate was 0.50/h.

Improving the accuracy of a constant concentration tracer gas system.

Air infiltration flows into different zones of a building can be measured with the constant concentration technique by injecting a metered amount of tracer gas t o hold the concentration of the gas constant. The control and estimation algorithm used to calculate the injection rate is designed using classical transform and optimal estimation methods. The ability of the control algorithm to keep the concentration constant and to accurately measure time varying infiltration flows is demonstrated using digital computer simulations and laboratory experiments.

Air exchange rates based upon individual room and single cell measurements.

For more than two years a series of detailed air infiltration measurements have been conducted over the complete yearly weather cycle on two identical side-by-side test houses in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. These measurements have been part of a broad study of the interaction of air infiltration , indoor air quality and energy in tightly constructed, well-insulated homes. The standard method of collecting air infiltration data throughout the study has been tracer gas decay. Operation of the duct air circulation fans has transformed each house into a single well-mixed cell .