A simple model is developed for the estimation of annual rates in single-family houses using indicators for both house tightness (air changes at 50 Pa) and site climate (the leakage-infiltration ratio). This technique is best suited to low-accuracy, large data set problems where detailed data are not available. The method is similar to the method attributed to Kronvall and Persily (ie, the K-P method), but is derived from a physical model, the LBL infiltration model.
Notes increasing complaints in Germany with the use of air conditioning and mechanical ventilation systems, despite them creating an indoor climate meeting the stipulations of German standard DIN 1946. The complaints are mainly of draughts, dry air, stale air and variable temperatures. Attributes most causes of complaint to the systems of air supply. Examines the drawbacks of various types of air supply system - dilution ventilation, window ventilation, displacement ventilation.
For proper control of the ventilation in a building, it is necessary to know the factors involved. These include (1) the climate, including temperature, wind direction, and wind velocity, (2) the building performance, (the interconnections b
Use of spectral analysis as a tool in identifying correlations of annual and diurnal patterns of weather data is presented. Results obtained with the application of this technique to the 10-yr hourly data for six variables of Fresno, Calif., in the 1952-1963 period indicate significant correlations in the annual and diurnal patterns of the variables. A method is introduced for estimating coincident diurnal patterns, which can be used in load and energy studies. Considerations in selection of representative periods of weather data for standard usage are found to require further research.
Buildings in cold climates must provide an indoor environment that is markedly different from that outdoors. The materials and components of the exterior envelope are subjected to large variations in conditions and greater demands are placed on the indoor environmental control system. Air pressure differences across building elements are augmented by buoyancy forces that influence air movement and indoor air quality. The potential for moisture condensation on and within the envelope is increased as is the danger of freezing in liquid systems.
Reviews the present state of development of dynamic insulation systems. Describes the advantages and disadvantages and assesses probable applications. Earlier articles and reports on dynamic insulation are listed and commented on. The second part deals with the ventilation design aspects for practical application of dynamic insulation in buildings. One of the points is concerned with how the air flow through the insulation is affected by changing external climate conditions. The risks of condensation in the insulation, particularly with coincident flow systems, is discussed.
With correct application of vapour barriers the ventilation of building structures is in general not necessary, unless such barriers prevent the escape of trapped moisture from moisture-sensitive - especially organic - materials. Indoor and outd