In 1997 several countries ratified the Kyoto protocol and so engage themselves to take into accountthe global warming, promote the sustainable development and act in order to reduce emission ofgreenhouse gases. Within this context, energy in buildings is known to be one of the first greenhousegases emitting sector. Consequently, determination of steady-state thermal transmission properties foreach kind of faade components becomes necessary in order to evaluate accurately energy loss, todevelop and enhance new products.
This paper presents the energy and economic analysis used to determine cost effective requirementslevels to the thermal standard for buildings in Lebanon. The heating and cooling energy use fordifferent buildings types (18 buildings) according to the variation of envelop parameters was simulatedfor realistic cooling and heating schedules and five Lebanese climatic zones. Parameters investigatedincluded, construction type, insulation levels, window sizes and solar protection. The energysimulation program VISUAL-DOE.3 was used for the energy use simulations.
In France, for historical and demographic reasons, many educational buildings must be retrofitted in the next years.However, various studies showed that measurements of energy savings, and improvement of comfort, are rarely applied in the retrofitting operations, because of a lack of knowledge of the decision makers concerning the potential improvements.The program REDUCE of International Energy Agency - ECBCS Annex 36, and studies aiming at promoting the high environmental quality of the educational buildings in France, showed the existence of a potential improvement of the energy efficie
Several high schools in the south east of France are subject to a major work of renovation. These works need to take into account the problem of summer comfort for a better well-being and intellectual performance of students. One of it was chosen to carry a study on the specific constraints for achieving summer comfort. The study consists of surveys, monitoring and simulations. This enables to determine the major causes of the summer discomfort in field and to propose several passive solutions. These solutions were assessed by simulation using a dynamic simulation tool.
French buildings highly contribute to the total national energy consumption. In order to inflect theincreasing tendency, significant efforts have been encouraged by public institutions.Accordingly, the GENHEPI concept, hereunder described, aims at methodically investigate retrofitoperations to ensure an effective renovation of existing buildings. Its first phase consists in preparingand elaborating projects development by a global energy approach. Modelling and sensitivity studiesof various technical solutions permit this analysis.
This paper deals with techniques aiming at reducing noise entering into naturally ventilated buildings while reducing airflow path resistance.The description of the combined experimental and theoretical approach is made. A method is suggested to enable the acoustic and airflow performance of apertures for natural ventilation systems to be designed simultaneously.
The web-based IEQ survey is a tool that helps assess how well a building is performing from the viewpoint of its occupants. It is useful to detect and solve problems, and to rate a building performance.The survey conducted in more than 70 buildings has been widely tested and refined.
Three case studies are presented, demonstrating the different possible applications of the survey : evaluation of the effectiveness of a technology, information of the guidelines for a new comfort standard, benchmarking facility performance.
In this study, serial environmental measurements in 12 large buildings in Taiwan have been made to control the air exchange efficiency on the indoor microbial contamination. High levels of airborne microbes seem to be more easily observed in buildings equipped with fan coil unit system than with air handling unit system.
Adequate filtration of fresh air intake should be imperative to control effectively microbial contaminations of outdoor origin.
It is not easy to provide simultaneously thermal comfort, proper air quality, efficient energy consumption to building occupants. In this paper an alternative methodology of real-time determination of optimal indoor air condition for HVAC system to achieve those 3 requirements is presented. A 24 hours operating HVAC system of a single-story building was chosen as a case study.The experiment results obtained with the proposed methodology were better than those from a conventional approach.
This study aims at demonstrating that semi-quantitative dampness/mold exposure indices can predict existence of excessive building-respiratory symptoms and diseases. Those findings justify action to correct water leaks and repair water damage in ordre to prevent them.