The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential forreducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, withoutcompromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e.the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for roomsfurnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used forventilation were carried out.


In this paper, a new experimental method for measuring thermal conductivity and thermal partitioncoefficient for building materials is presented. The uniqueness of this method is that theaforementioned physical properties are measured for the building materials under the same conditionsas in real life. This method is based on monitoring the temperature difference across the sample andthe solution of the transient conduction equation. The proposed method and designed apparatus weretested using some building materials (i.e.

TVOC, formaldehyde and ammonia levels in two new blocks of flats

Two new blocks of flats have been built for people with respiratory diseases. A number of points were taken into particular account during the design and construction of the buildings. For example, the project designers and builders were given training in prevention of problems with indoor air, only building materials that had been tested and found to have low emissions were used, and a supply/exhaust ventilation system and a central vacuum-cleaning system were installed.

Influence of local airflow on the pollutant emission from indoor building surfaces.

A study was done to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emissions from building materials in ventilated rooms. The investigation was based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory. Also proposed a generally applicable method for the prediction of surface emissions. No particulate emissions were analysed, and the work focused on the emission of vapours and gases. Numerical calculations by CFD and full-scale laboratory experiments were used.

The effect of ventilation on emission rates of wood finishing materials.

States that emission rate of organic compounds from building materials varies according to the type of material, material loading, compound emitted, temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate. For most materials, the relationship between emission rate and these variables is not available. Describes research with the use of small test chambers aimed at developing data on emission rates from several building materials.

Methods and results of characterisation of organic emissions from an indoor material.

Presents the method and example results for the determination of organic air emissions from a common indoor material. Sample materials were ventilated at controlled air change rates, temperature and relative humidity using a well instrumented and characterized stainless steel test chamber. Tenax filled glass cartridges were used to analyse the chamber outlet air stream, which are than thermally desorbed for further concentration onto a Nutech model 8528 purge and trap system and desorption to a packed column gas chromatograph.

Thermal mass storage and energy saving using underfloor air conditioning.

Describes studies undertaken at an office development. The first study aimed to outline a calculation method to estimate the allowance to be made for heat gains from the building fabric, especially the slab to the supply air in the design of an underfloor air conditioning system. Quantifications had not previously been made of the allowances necessary in the initial calculations as a result of the heat gains. Also gives an overview of the principle of integrating overnight ventilation using fresh air with underfloor air conditioning for so-called 'free' cooling.

Environmental impact and life cycle assessment of heating and air conditioning systems.

Proposed an alternative method to the LCA, the so-called Eco-Indicator, intended to tackle the total environmental impact on a number of different levels (e.g. materials, energy, waste, etc). It is based on a weighting method, and only a single score for the total environmental impact is calculated. It can be used to optimise heating and cooling systems.

Indoor air quality impacts of ventilation ducts: ozone removal and emissions of volatile organic compounds.

The emission rate of VOCs and aldehydes from materials typically found in ventilation ducts was measured. It was found to be low for some duct liners, but high for duct sealing caulk and a neoprene gasket - in fact approaching the odour threshold. Exposure to ozone was found to increase the emission rate of aldehydes from a duct liner, duct sealing caulk and neoprene gasket. When exposed to ozone, the removal efficiency for a lined duct diminished to less than 4% over 10 days. It was much lower for an unlined duct.

Inflammation markers in nasal lavage, and nasal symptoms in relation to relocation to a newly painted building: a longitudinal study.

Describes a longitudinal study of 83 social workers in two office building in Sweden. The exposed group moved to a newly redecorated building nearby, using low emitting building materials and solvent-free paint. Findings indicated that the move resulted in an increase in the personal outdoor airflow rate. The move resulted in increased nasal patency and ECP and lysozyme in NAL. Concludes that no major ocular or nasal effects or measurable increase in indoor air pollution need to result from redecoration of a well-ventilated building, if low emitting materials are chosen.