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Multi-Zone Model Approach for Evaluating Particle Mass Transport in a Ventilated Room

The behaviour of solid contaminants in air flow is important for identifying those in variouslocations in ventilated space. The main reason for this study is to find out where different-sized particles can be found in a room using a simple particle-settling model. In this investigation two distinctive particle sizes are considered, i.e. 0.5 m and 10 m. Additionally, two different ventilation configurations are used to examine how this influences the particle concentration.

Zone Resistance in Embedded CFD Modeling

Seeking to realistically model details of room airflows, researchers have recently embeddeddetailed CFD or sub-zone (zonal) models within multi-zone idealizations of building systems. However a number of issues remain to be resolved to assure the success of this approach. Foremost is the question of zone resistance which is ignored in multi-zone models yet implicitly included in CFD and sub-zone models.This paper defines a fundamental means to measure zone resistance and presents the results of CFD studies to evaluate its relative significance for representative geometries.

Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. This paper addresses the situations where plane flow is obtained and a semianalytic expression for the velocity level in the occupied zone is given.

Considerations on room airflow motion predictions

Airflow characteristics in the air-conditioned spaces play an important role to obtain the comfortable and hygienic conditions. This paper utilizes a 3D time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to assess the airflow characteristics in four different air-conditioned spaces. It was found that the location of the air extraction port represents a critical design factor and would have a direct effect on the heat removal efficiency and the energy efficiency of the air-conditioning system from the airside wise.

Prediction of indoor airflow patterns in livestock building ventilated through a diffuse ceiling

The airflow conditions in an experimental pig housing unit are examined both experimentally and numerically (simulation) with particular focus on the airflow conditions in the occupational zone of the animals. Two heating setups are used, and the temperature is measured in a horizontal profile at the floor and at the ceiling. Good concordances between the measurements and the simulations are reached at the floor level. At the ceiling level, the conformity to the measuring results is unsatisfactory.

Distribution of Contaminants in the Occupied Zone of a Room with Personalized and Displacement Ventilation

A distribution of contaminants from floor covering, exhaled air and human bioeffluents was examined in a mock-up of a typical two-person office by means of tracer-gases. The distribution was studied with two types of air terminal device for personalized ventilation combined with displacement ventilation. The results show that the type of personalized ventilation and its use affects the distribution of contaminants to a great extent, as does the type and location of contaminant sources.

Transmission of Exhaled Air between Occupants in Rooms with Personalized and Underfloor Ventilation

Air exhaled by occupants may carry infectious agents and be one way of transmitting respiratory diseases in rooms. The exposure of occupants to exhaled air was examined at two different throw heights of underfloor ventilation combined with two types of personalized ventilation by means of full-scale experiments. The concentration of exhaled air from one occupant was measured in air inhaled by another occupant who used or did not use personalized ventilation.

Interactive indoor air flow analysis using high performance computing and virtual reality techniques

In this article a prototype application of an interactive CFD-based computational steering system is presented, connecting a high performance computer (HPC) with a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. During the preliminary investigation of indoor air flow phenomena the user is able to interact on line, e.g. by modifying the geometry of the simulation scenario during the simulation itself. To allow for a comfortable analysis of complex fluid flow configurations a VR system consisting of a stereoscopic projection unit and a wand device is supported.

Using the torque characteristics of dampers to measure airflow, Part 2 : analysis and testing

Thanks to an uncertainty analysis, the demonstration has been made that the APT method can, over a wide range of conditions, outperform a pitot tube, but can't do it when the damper is nearly open. Tests have confirmed the results of the uncertainty analysis.

Using the torque characteristics of dampers to measure airflow, Part 1 : model development and validation

The mathematical model described in this paper relates position, velocity and aerodynamic Torque characteristics of air dampers. That model has been has been developed and tested experimentally : the results demonstrate its accuracy.

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