The Annex 46, within the IEA ECBCS programme, is meant to influence the decision making processin the retrofit of public and governmental buildings that determines the use of energy-saving measures in building retrofits. This decision making process must improve, if it is to successfully cope with the challenges of increasing energy costs and climate change, and if it is to avoid "locking in" long-term commitment to energy inefficiencies by adopting sub-optimal renovations.
Ventilation in schools is very important as it has a direct relation to health and performance of pupils.The status quo of school ventilation in the Netherlands is presented: lots of problems and insufficientsituations were found. Different aspects of the problems were studied to find new solutions.A new Integral Design approach was developed to design adequate solutions for ventilation of school buildings.
In schools the temperature of the indoor air is one of the most important factors in terms of the indoorclimate. The resulting indoor air temperature is depending on many factors; the temperature of thesupply air being one of the more significant one. One fan-assisted natural ventilation system includesa supply air system where the outdoor air should be passively heated respectively cooled when passing components in the ground before it is supplied to the classrooms. The objective is to examine the ability of the supply system to transfer heat to/from the outdoor air.
For quite a long time energy conservation and energy efficiency were concentrated on a singlebuilding approach. Until 2000 nearly all national building regulations were based on net energybalances (energy needs) comprising transmission losses, ventilation losses, solar gains, internal gains and heating gains. Due to that the development focused on reduced transmission and ventilation losses, and so-called low energy houses or passive houses were designed and demonstrated in pilot projects, at first for new constructions and later on also for refurbishment projects.
The office building belonging to the Remscheider Entsorgungsbetriebe REB (Waste DisposalUnit in Remscheid), which was constructed in 1968, was thoroughly renovated in 2004. Theutilisation quality was greatly improved with a combination of measures including efficientthermal insulation and solar control, fan-controlled ventilation, better use of daylight andactive use of solar energy for domestic hot water - while the energy consumption valueswere reduced appreciably at the same time.A key aspect of the renovation was to improve comfort during summer without applyingactive air-conditioning.
The French regulation on residential building ventilation relies on an overall and continuous airrenewal. The fresh air should enter the building through the habitable rooms while the polluted air isextracted in the service rooms. In this way, internal air is drained from the lowest polluted rooms to thehighest polluted ones. However, internal pressure equilibrium and air movements in buildings resultfrom the combined effects ventilation system and parameters such as wind, temperature difference or doors opening.
The emission from materials is an important source of degradation of our indoor air quality. Toinvestigate this field, it is necessary to determine pollutant concentration inside buildings, based onemission rates and air exchange rate (ventilation + envelope airtightness). This paper presentsdifferent method for such determination and their application to the case of formaldehyde from building materials.
The vortex ventilation system (VV) which uses a rotating finned swirler installed coaxially with the exhaust duct is a very effective local ventilator. VV can enhance the capture depth by a factor of 3-5 compared to the conventional exhaust hood, in the absence of any solid walls nearby. In real situations there may exist ceiling, side wall and floor, all of which can affect the flow field and suction performance by way of the no-slip condition on the walls. 3D CFD simulation was performed in order to see the effect of the floor on the capture performance of the VV.
This paper analyzes some important aspects toward changing energy paradigma in urban area.To that aim it is important to act synergically on three sides of the energy system:- Demand side: by reducing energy demand;- Supply side: by optimizing generation system and transmission of energy and by integrating local renewable energy sources also by distributed (co)generation, where it is possible;- Management side: by implementing advanced management control systems able to reduce energy waste and to combine energy demand and generation in the best way.Actions aiming demand containment can affe
Ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants. It is particularly required todilute and/or remove pollutants emitted by occupants' metabolism and activities. The concentration of metabolic CO2 is well correlated to metabolic odour intensity. Therefore CO2 concentration can beefficiently chosen as an indoor air quality index when occupants are the main source of pollution inside the buildings.