A manufactured home has been installed on the NIST campus for ventilation, energy andindoor air quality studies. The primary purposes of the facility are to study mechanicalventilation requirements for U.S. manufactured homes and to investigate the systems used tomeet these requirements. In addition, the building will be used to investigate moisture issues,indoor air quality impacts of combustion appliances, and VOC emissions from buildingmaterials and furnishings. The first phase of this multiyear effort has focused on airtightness,system airflows and air change rates.
Many recently developed energy-reducing strategies with respect to heat loads in residential interiorsincluded in simulation programs possess extensive capabilities in handling these loads (gains orsinks) for each zone - spatial unit designed for maintaining moist air thermodynamics there.We have taken up procedure, which was primarily dedicated to the influence of the sensor positionsof a room model.
The most efficient ventilation system would only operate on demand, when ventilation was "needed". Running the ventilation system all the time at a low flow rate, a rate sufficient to match the ASHRAE recommended 0.35 ACH is a crude control approach to an optimum system. Conditions in a house are not constant. On average, a constant flow rate ventilation system will work reasonably well and certainly is simple, but there are more energy efficient approaches, and users tend to shut down systems that run constantly.
For the building team, the design of library, archives and museum facilities brings with it special responsibilities. Archive and conservation facilities require the highest levels of preservation and maintenance of the building environment. Understanding how to maintain and preserve vulnerable materials is a key component to developing a successful design solution.
In recent years, poor indoor climate has caused health problems for building occupants. Sometimes these problems have been so serious that these buildings have, quite rightly, been labelled sick buildings.Today, there is good evidence in some areas as to why such problems arise. Unhealthy substances given off by various building materials, the existence of mould and general air pollution are the main causes. Another important factor is the high level of humidity in buildings and indoor air.In general, the most important way to remedy the problem is to improve ventilation.
This is a personal set of comments giving the author's impressions of the papers presented at the conference. A great concern of him is the difference between building scientists and health scientists as indoor air quality issues are investigated.
Carbon-dioxide (CO2) based demand controlled ventilation (DCV) offers the potential for moreenergy efficient building ventilation compared with constant ventilation rates based on designoccupancy. A number of questions related to CO2 DCV exist regarding energy benefits, optimalcontrol strategies, and indoor air quality impacts for contaminants with source strengths that areindependent of the number of occupants. In order to obtain insight into these issues, a simulationstudy was performed in six commercial and institutional building spaces.
There is research acknowledging that the home environment may be responsible for worsening respiratory conditions, especially for children. The indoor environment is a substantial source of exposure to pollutants e.g. environmental tobacco smoke. Apart from conducting specialised, costly and complex studies a method was needed to understand and assess indoor environments in the UK and how people could be encouraged to improve their indoor environment.
Twenty homes were tested and monitored in Houston, Texas, U.S.A. to evaluate humidity controlperformance and operating cost of six different integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems that could be applied by production homebuilders. Fourteen houses had one of the six integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems and also met a high standard of energy efficiency criteria.
In January 2002 the EU RESHYVENT project started, a three-year project within the EU Fifth Framework Programme on the investigation and development of demand controlled hybrid ventilation systems in residential buildings. The project is a clustering of four industrial consortia with a multi-disciplinary scientific consortium. Each of these industrial consortia will develop a working prototype of a hybrid ventilation system for a specific climate.