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17th AIVC Conference "Optimum Ventilation and Air Flow Control in Buildings" (Book of Proceedings)

The book of proceedings from the 17th AIVC Conference "Optimum Ventilation and Air Flow Control in Buildings", Gothenburg, Sweden, 17-20 September 1996

Volume 1 includes 40 papers

Volume 2 includes 28 papers

Supplementary volume includes discussion papers and additional presentations

17th AIVC Conference - Gothenburg, Sweden - 17-20 September 1996

The 17th AIVC Conference - Optimum Ventilation and Air Flow Control in Buildings, was held in Gothenburg, Sweden, 17-20 September 1996.

Contains 62 papers.

Ventilation measurements in a cinema.

This paper reports on the ventilation measurements in a cinema using the tracer-gas technique. Both the local and room air exchange efficiencies were measured. The two tracer-gas methods, "step-up" and "step-down (decay)", were used alternately when the cinema was in use to enable a continuous measurement of air-exchange efficiencies under various occupancies. The air exchange efficiencies were found to be very close to that for a perfect mixing, with little influence from the occupants. This might be due to that the cinema had a downward mixing ventilation with a large air change rate.

Passive cooling, simulations and experiences from realized projects in Sweden.

The use of computers for simulating building thermal behavior started early at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. The first example of such use dates from a 1957 study of an exterior wall exposed to solar radiation. The simulation program, later named BRIS, has gradually evolved with regard to the users and growing computer capacity. It has been used since the early sixties for research projects, design work and development of new systems, among others the ventilated hollow-core slab (Thermodeck) system.

A tool for evaluating domestic ventilation systems' ability to provide an acceptable indoor air quality.

This paper is describing the first results of the Annex 27 work aiming at developing simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems by using sophisticated simulation programs studying pollutant concentration either for each person or in an individual room. Assumptions based on previous research works are set up for a number of parameters. The total number of combinations are about 17500 and have been reduced to 174 by the statistical method "fractional factorial analysis". With this reduction it is possible to make all the runs even with sophisticated multicell models.

Natural ventilation studies within the frame of PASCOOL project.

Natural ventilation studies were carried out within the frame of PASCOOL EC Research Project. Research on this topic included experimental and modelling work aiming to fill the existing gaps in our knowledge of indoor air conditions in naturally ventilated buildings. Experiments were carried out in full scale and test cell facilities during the summer period. Single sided and cross ventilation as well as air flow through large internal openings were the basic topics that were studied. Existing models were validated and new ones were developed.

Zonal model to predict air distribution and dynamic concentration of pollutant in ventilated rooms.

The first part of the paper will show some aspects of experimental research on air distribution in ventilated rooms. The study has been carried out to get an understanding of the air movement and the ventilation effectiveness by means of tracer gas measurements. It has been investigated the velocity and the distribution of the concentration in a two-dimensional isothermal flow issue of a linear supply opening. The second part of the paper will describe a proposed zonal model in 9 zones.

Wind towers - old technology to solve a new problem.

Wind towers (scoops situated on the roofs of buildings to catch the wind) have been in use for centuries in the Middle east and Pakistan, to provide ventilation and cooling with minimal mechanical plant. In Europe, the problem of cooling buildings has generally not been significant, but in recent years there has been a trend towards substantial increases in internal heat gains from IT equipment etc., and overheating in summer has become one of our major concerns.

Ventilation performance evaluation using passively-generated carbon dioxide as a tracer gas.

Tracer gases are commonly used to evaluate the performance of ventilation systems. One way to reduce the time, complexity, and cost of such experiments is to use the carbon dioxide generated by occupants as a tracer gas. In this paper, a method for using the carbon dioxide generated by occupants as a tracer gas for determining the effective supply air flow rate to a zone or the relative air-change effectiveness of a zone is described. The approach is to make use of a model of the accumulation dynamics and a model of the way that occupants generate carbon dioxide.

The influence of outdoor air vents and airtightness on natural ventilation - calculations based on measurements.

Many modern buildings in the Nordic countries have mechanical ventilation. Passive stack ventilation is, however, an accepted ventilation system in the Nordic countries according to the current building codes. The building authorities need to be able to supply guidelines on natural ventilation systems in modern buildings, in order to fullfill the requirements on a healthy indoor climate at a reasonable energy cost. Therefore a project was initiated by the Nordic committee on building regulations.