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IJV13

Study on Distribution and Deposition of House Dust by Different Ventilation Systems in a Full-scale Residential Room

House dust contamination has recently become an important issue in the residential indoor environment. This study evaluated ventilation systems for removing house dust efficiently in a full-scale residential room. Experiments and simulations were performed to investigate diffusion and deposition of house dust by different ventilation systems. Riboflavin particles were used as the house dust. Two kinds of ventilation systems were considered, namely ceiling exhaust and slit exhaust.

Impact of Clothing, Breathing and Body Posture on the Shaping of a Thermal Plume above a Human

The impact of clothing, breathing and body posture on the thermal plume above a thermal manikin was investigated. Measurements of air velocity and temperature above the manikin were performed at four different heights above a sitting and a lying manikin. The results obtained from tests above the sitting manikin show an inverse proportion between the thermal insulation of clothing and the air velocity in the thermal plume. Air velocity in the thermal plume with the breathing function switched on equalled 90-98% of the values obtained for non-breathing experiments.

Effects of Vent Configuration and Span Number on Greenhouse Microclimate under Summer Conditions in Eastern China

The effects of vent configuration and span number on the microclimate in multi-span greenhouses were investigated. A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed based on an 11-span plastic greenhouse cultivated with 0.2 m-high lettuces. The model was verified with the temperature profile measured in the greenhouse. Then, it was used to explore the effects of vent configuration and span number on greenhouse climate. Simulations show that different vent configurations result in very different microclimate fields.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Airflow and Climate in a Real Operating Theatre under Effective Use Conditions

In the present study microclimate and airflow patterns in a real operating theatre (OT) under effective use conditions are investigated. Surgical staff movements and sliding door opening/closing effects on the air thermal distribution and velocity fields are considered. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations are carried out for the “at rest” and “operational” conditions of the OT. Two “operational” use conditions are considered: “correct” and “incorrect” during a simulated hip surgery.

Evaluation of Interaction and Blockage Effects for Multi-fan Units used in Public Transport HVAC Systems

A specific type of centrifugal fan named the "squirrel-cage" is broadly used in parallel configurations within an evaporator unit of HVAC systems for public transport. In these units, interaction effects arise, both between fans themselves and between fans and the structural elements. Blockage effects, such as the electrical motor, the evaporator gate and some aesthetic covering may also appear when these external elements are located very close to the fans aspiration nozzles.

Air Tightness of Ventilation Ductwork in Recently Built Low-Energy and Conventional Houses

The air tightness of ventilation ductwork was measured in two recently built low-energy houses and in two conventionally built houses in the summer of 2013. The ducts and components were metal in three houses and plastic in one house. The air tightness of the ductwork had been checked by an installation survey after construction. The measured leakage airflows corresponded to air tightness class A or lower, therefore did not satisfy the minimum requirement set for class B regarding the air tightness of ventilation ductwork.

Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fan

This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally introduce pressure drops in the duct system thus nominal airflows are achieved throughout the ductwork within specified tolerances.

A Novel Method for Thermostat Set Point Prediction for Energy Savings and/or Better Human Thermal Comfort - A Zonal Modelling Approach

Very often the set point temperature is selected to satisfy comfort requirements and/or to save energy consumption in buildings. However, the thermostat location is usually outside the occupied space and located on the wall near a front door or in a hallway that is subject to warm and cold draughts. A discrepancy exists between the temperature at the thermostat location and the occupied zones.

The Confinement Effects on Jet Kinetic Momentum Flux Quantified by Measuring the Reaction Force

A turbulent jet is the most important flow element in mechanical ventilation. Mixing ventilation is based on the properties of turbulent jets. By entrainment into the jet the ambient air is set into motion. For a jet supplied within a room the enclosure may affect the jet in several ways, through:

Effect of Opening the Sash of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window on Wind Pressure Coefficients

This paper describes the effect of outward opening the sash of a window on local and overall wind pressures. Wind tunnel experiments were used for the purpose of evaluation. A centre-pivot roof window on a pitched roof in a modelled scaled building was used in the analysis of wind pressures. The wind pressures were defined in terms of wind pressure coefficients. Traditionally, wind pressure coefficients are extracted from the analysis of a sealed plane surface. These wind pressure coefficients are used to estimate the natural ventilation rate through windows/openings due to wind effect.

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