Evaluation of the energy use of buildings, systems and plants

The paper presented is based on work done within the IEA ANNEX 10 'system simulation' group.There, eight research instituts discussed and agreed on simulation models for heating and air conditioning components. The models are documented in so called 'component specifications'. These specifications contain a description how to simulate the steady state and also in a first estimation the dynarnic, hydraulic and aeraulic behaviour.

Discussion paper on IEA annex XXI calculation of energy and environmental performance of buildings

The objectives of this discussion paper are: to define the new Annex on "Calculation of Energy and Environmental Performance of Buildings"; to determine feasibility of the Annex i.e. whether the full Annex should go head or could the objectives of the Task be accomplished through other means such as conference, workshops, international associations; and to describe various sub-tasks of the Annex (assuming it is needed).

Development of a methodology to evaluate the energy and comfort performance of fenestration

This paper describes the development of a new concept for analyzing the performance of fenestration systems. We show the derivation of five indicators that can be combined in a variety of ways so that both qualitative and quantitative judgements can be made regarding total fenestration performance. The five indices consist of three related to energy: fuel (heating), electric (cooling), and peak electric demand; and two to comfort: thermal and visual.

Development of a component program library for building energy simulation: a japanese experience

This paper describes the concept of developing a component program library for building energy simulation and the current state of its development, which has been made by a working group of theSociety of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers, Japan (SHASEJ) since 1985. The purposeof developing this component program library is to assist researchers and engineers in designing theirown programs for their own objectives.

Daylighting in a hot arid area

The availability of daylight, including diffused sky light and direct sunlight, in urban open spaces is an important environmental factor in designing and regulating buildings in high density urban areas. The establishment of a scientific and quantitative basis to evaluate the daylighting impact of a building has been one of the major concerns among daylighting and city planning communities. This study on daylight initially investigates methods to predict the daylight levels in urban environments. The methods to deal with complex urban geometries and their optical properties were explored.

Considerations for advanced building thermal simulation programs

In order to assess the applicability of a more modular approach to the development of building thermal analysis programs, this paper begins with a review of some of the basic numerical methods used in simulation. These are discussed with some observations from other fields of study besides building simulation. Two major examples of advanced simulation methods are presented: the use of sparse matrix methods for heat transfer simulation and a modular calculation of building airflows.

Condensation targeter: the integration of a thermal and moisture model

This paper describes a design tool, 'Condensation Targeter', for assessing condensation risk in dwellings and the effect of remedial measures thereon. The BREDEM energy model is augmented by a moisture model to determine mean internal relative humidity (MIRH). This measure of condensation risk is calculated for two zones in a dwelling from mean internal temperatures, moisture generation and ventilation rates. Primary input data relate to occupancy (fuel expenditure and moisture production) and dwelling characteristics (thermal and ventilation).

Concepts suppporting reuse of models

Mathematical models of various kinds are important in many disciplines. Unfortunately, it is often difficult and time-consuming to develop models. This paper considers the possibilities to reduce model development work as far as possible by supporting reuse of models. Two basic ideas are discussed: First, use of symbolic descriptions (equations) to describe behaviour and second, concepts for modularization to make reuse of models both flexible and safe. The results presented are parts of project to develop computer aided engeneering tools for model development and simulation.

Computer simulation/end-use metering or "can we count on energy savings estimates in designing demand-side programs"?

In 1937, Congress created the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) to serve as transmission and distribution agent for electricity generated by the Bonneville Dam. Today, Bonneville, as a part of the United States Department of Energy, also distributes hydroelectricity from twenty-nine other federal dams in the Pacific Northwest to its "wholesale customers", the majority publicly-owned utilities. Bonneville's full service area covers approximately 300,000 square miles in the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana west of the Continental Divide.

Commercial building HVAC technology screening tools

Commercial building owners and managers face a complex array of HvAc technology options. Economicanalysis of the options requires consideration of technology characteristics, equipment operatingstrategies, and utility rates. The interaction among these factors is complicated, requiring structured analysis tools that go well beyond simple spreadsheets. To provide a uniform and well-tested approach, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRi) has developed COOLAID, COOLGEN and COMTECH, which are PC analysis tools for commercial building technologies.